Peasant and Fisherman Croft at Nadole Branch of the Museum of the Region of Puck
The Peasant and Fisherman’s Farmsteads in Nadole
The Museum is located on Lake Żarnowiec in Nadole, 20 km from Wejherowo. It was created in 1982 and constitutes a division of the Florian Ceynowa Puck Land Museum. The exposition includes a farmstead of a moderately wealthy peasant; the farmstead includes a cottage for an extended family, a barn and a byre. Also found in the Museum is a fisherman’s farmstead which contains a cottage and fishing nets. Also on display in the Museum are numerous associated object such as a bred oven, a cellar, a remise, an apiary, a rabbit warren, a pigeon-house, and a treadwheel.
The construction of nuclear power plants in Poland is a subject which has been disputed for many years. In the 1980s, the township of Kartoszyno on Lake Żarnowiec in the Pomerania Region became the construction site of buildings which were to form the infrastructure for the future Żarnowiec Nuclear Power Plant. The town’s inhabitants have been relocated. At that time, ecologists opposing the construction of the power plant became very audible. However, not many people now, that the Pomerania Region’s museologists were also acutely aware of the changes which may result from the construction of the facility. According to various expert appraisements, the plant was to influence not only the natural environment, but also the cultural heritage, altering the way of life of the inhabitants of the Gniewno Municipality, the social and professional structure, the architecture, and the customs. Due to this fact, members of the University of Gdańsk Student Scientific Circle for Historians under the leadership of Stanislaw Mielczarski, the local government, the builders of the power plant and the members of the Museum of Kashubian-Pomeranian Literature and Music in Wejherowo led to the creation of a museum which was meant to stand as testimony to the subsiding culture of Lake Żarnowiec. Under the leadership of ms. Teresa Lasowa, full-scale cataloguing and conservational work was carried out. The conservation was performed by a local craftsman, Józef Lesnau, aided by the inhabitants of Nadole and the employees of the nearby power plant. The Żarnowiec Power Plant never became operational and since 1990, it is possible to view the deteriorating buildings which form something of a museum of an unrealized project. The museum which was created on the opposite side of Lake Żarnowiec prospers till today.
In 1982, the Florian Ceynowa Puck Land Museum, at that time managed by Teresa Lasowa, was charged with the care over an in situ object, a traditional 19th century Kashubian country farmstead purchased from the Ruzt Family. It was renovated and opened for touring on June 23, 1987. The farmstead consists of a barn and a living cottage (checz gburska in the Kashubian language).
The barn dates to the early 20th century; it is a large building divided into two parts, constructed using the timber-framing technique infilled with clay mixed with chaff. Its walls have not been whitewashed, but have the natural brown color of clay which fills the space between the elements of the timber frame. He barn holds a permanent exhibition which deals with the history of beekeeping in the Pomerania Region. On display here are wooden beehives sculpted by Józef Chełmowski, carved into unusual forms like devils or old women. The building also holds a display of agricultural machines. Located outside the barn is a treadwheel (rozwark in Kashubian), and outside the cottage of a moderately wealthy farmer (gbur), a colorful summer flower garden has been planted. The cottage itself was built in 1846, designed for an extended family. It is constructed with the implementation of a technique similar to that used in the barn, that is, basing on the timber-framing technique infilled with clay mixed with chaff. However, its walls are whitewashed. The checz stands on sound, stone foundations and the house is covered with a rafter, half-hip roof, thatched with the easily available reed. The inside shows a reconstruction of the way of life of two generations: in the first room, of a married couple with children (noteworthy is a beautiful wooden crib, an embroidered garment for a toddler and toys, e.g. a rocking horse). The second room was occupied by the grandparents. The building is furnished with typical household and farm utensils from the turn of the 20th century.
Next to the cottage is a six-sided, wooden pigeon-house built on a tall pole. The center of the farmstead is occupied by a plac gnojwy, which can be translated as a compost yard, that is, a square fragment of the inner yard surrounded with a stone wall, where compost was deposited. The farmstead also contains a byre, although the one featured never belonged to the Rutz farmstead, but was a part of the Mudlaff Family farmstead form Kartoszyno. It was built in mid 19th century on a stone foundation. It is covered with a rafter, gable roof with two bullseye windows. Under one roof, it accommodated room for horses, cattle, pigs, sheep and poultry. Today, the building contains displays of horses’ harness and mangers. In the old pigsty, a woodshed has been created with a collection of carpentry and woodworking tools. Located next to the byre is also a maglownia (mangling room) which houses authentic machines used for ironing textiles. The structure was expanded by the addition of a carriage house where a collection of country vehicles is now stored.
In 1987, the Puck Land Museum employees documented and secured fragments of another old house. It belonged to a fishing Kuhr Family from Nadole. The cottage is thatched with reed, timber-framed with slanting timber beams (called rygle in Polish) strengthening the corners. The southern section of the cottage’s interior has been furnished in the style of the 1950s and 60s. In the northern section, an exposition featuring an authentic early 20th century buffet from the Leśniewo Village has been created. It is worthwhile to visit the fisherman’s cottage, the net-making shop, the nearby fishing boat to understand what the life and the work of the people living by the lake might have looked like.
The Museum also contains a smokehouse, a bread oven (a house-like structure covered with a gable roof), and a cellar called kula, that is a dug-out compartment used as crop storage ( its walls are made from stone and the doors are wooden; the building is covered with a roof which rests on vertical poles which are forked at the top, allowing for the placement of a horizontal beam supporting the rafters). The last structure is a fire-station brought to the Museum in 2007 on the 100th anniversary of the Nadole fire-brigade. Ms. Bogumiła Pałka is one of the people who will gladly recount the history of the Museum, as she is one of the people who work here since the institution was established. Thanks to her lively tales filled with emotion, we can travel back to a time when a number of Nadole’s townspeople, employees of the Museum, participated in the grand relocation and renovation of the fisherman’s cottage, when they were discovering the traditional building and conservational methods. Ms. Pałka also encourages to take part in the Kashubian events, organized at the Museum in Nadole. The krancbal, the Feast of St. Anna pilgrimage, the kaszëbsczi pszczelnik are only some occasions to taste the regional cuisine and listen to Kashubian music performed by the “Nadolanie” band.